Governor: Wei Hong
Provincial Capital: Chengdu
Address of Provincial Government: 30# Duyuan Street, Jinjiang District, Chengdu
Zip Code: 610016
Government Website: http://www.sc.gov.cn
Sichuan is located in western China and is the important joint of southwest, northwest and central China. It is also a traffic corridor that links south and central China, connects southwest and northwest China and channels Central, South and Southeast Asia. Sichuan covers an area of 485,000 square kilometers, ranking No.5 in China. It governs 21 cities (autonomous prefectures) and 181 counties (county-level cities and districts). Sichuan is a populous province with rich resources and well-developed economy.
Geographic Location and Natural Conditions
The terrain of China’s mainland forms a flight of three steps in terms of altitude. Sichuan lies between the first step, namely Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and the second step, namely the Middle-lower Yangtze Plain. It is high in the west while low in the east, demonstrating a distinct disparity in terms of altitude. Plateaux and mountainous areas can be seen in west Sichuan with elevations of over 4,000 meters above sea level, while basins and hilly areas can be found in the east, with elevations of 1,000 to 3,000 meters above sea level. The whole province can be divided into three parts: the Sichuan Basin, Sichuan Northwest Plateau and Sichuan Southwest Mountains. Sichuan has a complex and varied topography with mountains and plateaus being the most outstanding feature. There are four geomorphic types, that is, mountainous areas, hilly areas, plains and plateaus, accounting for 77.1%, 12.9%, 5.3%, and 4.7% respectively of the gross area of Sichuan. Sichuan boasts rich soil types. There are 25 great soil groups, 66 subgroups, 137 soil genus and 380 soil species. The number of soil groups and subgroups take up 43.48% and 32.06% respectively of the national total.
Sichuan is located in the transitional zone between Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the eastern plains and therefore has complex and diverse climates with rather obvious regional differences and vertical changes. There are distinct disparities between east and west Sichuan as well. Sichuan is generally divided into three major climate zones: humid subtropical climate zone of Sichuan Basin, sub-humid and subtropical climate zone of southwest Sichuan’s mountainous regions, and alpine climate zone of high mountains and plateaus of northwest Sichuan.
The overall characteristics of Sichuan’s climate can be summarized as follows: monsoon climate is obvious and rain and heat happens in the same seasons; regional climate differences are prominent in that the east is characterized by warm winters, early springs, hot summers, rainy autumns, much cloud and fog, little sunshine and a long growing season while the west is characterized by coldness, long winters, almost no summer, sufficient sunshine, concentrated rainfall and distinct dry and rainy seasons; vertical climate changes are significant and climate types are varied; meteorological disasters happen in various forms with a high frequency and large scope, which are mainly droughts, rainstorms, floods and cold weather.
Sichuan’s land resources can be classified into 8 first-class land use types, 45 second-class land use types and 62 third-class land use types. Except for rubber plantations, all the first-class and second-class land use types in other provinces can be found in Sichuan, which makes Sichuan quite typical in China. Forestry and animal husbandry are the main forms of land use, and the land for such uses is mainly confined to the mountainous areas around the basins and the western mountains and plateaus, accounting for 68.9% of Sichuan’s total land area; farmland is mostly in the eastern basin areas and low mountainous and hilly areas, accounting for over 85% of Sichuan’s total farmland; garden land is mainly in the basins, hilly areas, and southwestern mountainous areas, accounting for over 70% of Sichuan’s total garden land; and land for transportation and construction is mainly in the plains and hilly areas where the economy is more developed.
Sichuan has favorable geological conditions for mineralizing, and thus boasts abundant and a comparatively full range of mineral resources. The reserve volume of 100 varieties of minerals and 1,906 mining areas have been verified. Reserves of 43 minerals rank top 5 in China and 11 minerals such as titanium, vanadium, natural gas, and so on rank first in terms of reserves. Sichuan’s supply ability of mineral resources grows so noticeably that Sichuan has become a major province of raw mineral material production and processing in western and even in the whole nation.
Sichuan has heavy rainfall, and its water resources are among the richest in the country. The average annual precipitation is 488.975 billion cubic meters. The richest water resources of Sichuan are rivers and streams. Sichuan is well known as “thousand-river province”, for it boasts nearly 1,400 rivers and streams large and small. The total volume of Sichuan’s water resources approximates 348.97 billion cubic meters. In addition, there are 54.69 billion cubic meters of underground water resources, with the exploitable amount of 11.5 billion cubic meters. Sichuan is covered with over 1,000 lakes and more than 200 glaciers. There are also swamps of a considerable area, most of which spread in northwest and southwest Sichuan. The total water storage capacity of lakes is about 1.5 billion cubic meters. Plus that of marshes, the total amounts to about 3.5 billion cubic meters.
Sichuan boasts diversified biological resources. A great number of rare and ancient plant and animal species can be found in Sichuan, making it one of the precious biological gene pools in China and even in the world.
Sichuan has extraordinarily abundant plant species. There are 10,000 species of higher plants, accounting for about 1/3 of the national total, second only to Yunnan Province. Of all the higher plants, there are over 500 species of bryophytes. Vascular plants fall into over 1620 genera of over 230 families. There are 708 species of pteridophytes, more than 100 species of gymnosperms (variations included), over 8,500 species of angiosperms, and 87 species of pines, firs and cypresses, all ranking first in China. Sichuan has 84 rare and endangered plant species, taking up 21.6% of the national total. There are over 5,500 species of wild economic plants, 4,600 among which are medicinal plants. Chinese herbal medicines produced throughout Sichuan represent 1/3 of China’s total output, making Sichuan the largest base of Chinese herbal medicine. Sichuan is also the biggest production place for aromatic oil with more than 300 species of aromatic plants. Sichuan has more than 100 species of wild fruit plants, among which kiwi fruit has the largest output and ranks first in China and enjoys considerable global reputation. Fungi resources are abundant as well. There are 1291 species of wild fungi, accounting for 95% of the national total. The forest coverage rate of Sichuan reaches 31.3% and its timber reserve ranks second in China.
Sichuan is rich in animal resources as well. 1246 species of vertebrates can be found in Sichuan, accounting for more than 45% of the national total. Mammals and birds account for 53% of the national total. There are 217 species of mammals, 625 species of birds, 84 species of reptiles, 90 species of amphibians and 230 species of fishes. Sichuan has 144 species of national key protected wild animals, taking up 39.6% of the national total and ranking first in China. There are 1,206 wild giant pandas in Sichuan, accounting for 76% of the national total. The population size of giant pandas in Sichuan tops in China. More than 50% of the animal species in Sichuan can serve economic purposes. Sichuan boasts extraordinarily rich pheasant resources and is famous as “paradise for pheasants”. There are 20 species in the family of phasianidae, taking up 40% of the national total. A number of them are rare and endangered species, such as pheasant partridge (national first-class protected animal), Sichuan hill partridge, Lophophorus lhuysii, and so on.
Sichuan boasts abundant tourism resources with beautiful natural scenery, profound history, splendid culture as well as unique ethnic customs. Both quantity and quality of Sichuan’s tourism resources rank among the best in China and Sichuan is noted as big tourism province.
There are five world heritage sites in Sichuan, including three natural heritages (Jiuzhaigou Valley, Huanglong and Giant Panda Habitat), one natural and cultural heritage (Mount Emei – Leshan Giant Buddha) and one cultural heritage (Mount Qingcheng – Dujiangyan Irrigation System). Four natural reserves (Jiuzhaigou Valley, Wolong Natural Reserve, Huanglong and Daocheng Yading) are listed into the World Man and Biosphere Reserve Network. Sichuan has 14 national-level key scenic spots, 75 provincial-level scenic spots, and 5 spots of “China’s 40 Best Tourist Destinations”. Mount Qingcheng – Dujiangyan Irrigation System, Mount Emei and Jiuzhaigou Valley are among the first batch of National AAAAA Tourist Attractions. Sichuan has a total of 156 A-level tourist attractions and 21 China excellent tourist cities. There are 166 natural reserves with an area of 89,100 square kilometers, occupying 18.4% of Sichuan’s land area. 6 giant panda natural reserves, namely Wolong, Fengtongzhai, Labahe, Caopo, Anzihe, and Heishuihe, as essential areas of giant panda world natural heritage sites, have already been on the world natural heritage list. There are 103 forest parks in Sichuan with a total operation area of 741,000 hectare, taking up 1.5% of Sichuan’s total area. Sichuan has complex geological structure and a variety of geological landscapes can be found in Sichuan. Over 220 geological relics have been discovered, among which there are 2 world-class geoparks in Xingwen and Zigong respectively. There are also 14 national-level geoparks, taking the lead in China in this respect. Sichuan has 8 national famous historic and cultural cities, 128 national key protected cultural relics and 576 provincial key protected cultural relics.
Statistics of Population
At the end of 2011, Sichuan has a resident population of 80.5 million, 80,000 more than last year. The urban population is 33.67 million and the rural population is 46.83 million. The urbanization rate is 41.83%, 1.65% higher than that of last year. There are a total 788,800 newborns in 2011. The birth rate is 9.79‰, growing by 0.86‰. The death population is 548,700 with the death rate being 6.81‰. The population growth rate is 2.98‰.
Ethnic Composition and Distribution
Sichuan Province is inhabited by multiple ethnic groups. There are 55 ethnic groups with a population of 4.22 million. The Yi, Zang, Qiang, Miao, Hui, Mongolian, Tujia, Lisu, Manchu, Naxi, Bouyei, Bai, Zhuang, and Dai are indigenous ethnic groups. Sichuan is the only habitation for the Qiang ethnic group, the largest habitation for the Yi ethnic group as well as the second largest habitation for the Zang ethnic group in China. The major habitations for ethnic groups are .Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Ganzi Zang Autonomous Prefecture, Aba Zang and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Muli Zang Autonomous County, Mabian Yi Autonomous County, Ebian Yi Autonomous County and Beichuan Qiang Autonomous County.
In 2011, Sichuan has 32,000 schools of all forms at all levels (including technical training school and vocational training institutions) with 18.84-mln students and 944,000 faculty staff, 781,000 of whom are full-time teachers.
Compulsory education. By the end of 2011, nine-year compulsory education has been practiced in 181 counties (cities and districts) in Sichuan, realizing 100% coverage. There are 8,847 primary schools, recruiting 997,000 new students, making the total enrollment to be 5,798,000. There are 4,704 middle schools, recruiting 1,594,000 new students, making the total enrollment to be 4,778,000. There are 107 special education schools, recruiting 6,767 new students, making the total enrollment to be 41,000.
Higher education. By the end of 2011, there are 94 colleges and universities in Sichuan with 1,139,000 undergraduate and junior college students, increasing by 4.9%. There are 289,000 graduates, 11,000 more than that of last year. There are 37 postgraduate cultivation institutions, recruiting 27,000 new students, increasing by 1.9%. The number of postgraduates attending school amounts to 83,000, with 21,000 graduates. The gross enrollment ratio of ordinary higher education increases to 27%.
Vocational education. There are 656 secondary vocational schools (including technical training schools) in Sichuan, recruiting 575,000 new students, taking up 51.8% of the total new students of senior high education. The enrollment amounts to 1,408,000. There are 6,162 vocational training institutions in Sichuan with 2,763,000 registered students.
Adult education. There are 22 higher education institutions for adults with 310,000 enrolled students for undergraduate or junior college education. There are 75 middle schools for adults with 56,000 registered students. 1.83-mln adults took part in examination for the self-taught and there were 30,000 graduates of undergraduate or junior college education in 2011.
Science & Technology
In 2011, Sichuan high-tech industries realized a gross industrial output value of 662.22-bln yuan, increasing by 19.9%. Sichuan boasts 12 national key laboratories, 131 provincial key laboratories, 14 national engineering research centers and 106 provincial engineering research centers. There are 27 academicians of Chinese Academy of Science and 35 academicians of Chinese Academy of Engineering in Sichuan. In 2011, 9,942 technical contracts were registered with 7.153-bln yuan contract value. 618 provincial scientific and technological achievements were registered. In 2011, Sichuan applied for 49,734 patents and received 28,446 patent licenses. Among them there were 4,255 newly-increased patent projects with 86.649-bln yuan newly-increased output value.
By the end of 2011, Sichuan has 78 art performance troupes within the culture system, 51 art performance places, 205 cultural centers, 4,448 cultural stations and 165 public libraries. There are 12 national culture industry demonstration bases and 33 provincial bases of this kind. 10 TV plays and 1 feature film were produced in 2011.
Museums and memorials in Sichuan are open free to the public. In 2011, 20.38-mln visitors were received. By the end of 2011, Sichuan has 105 national intangible cultural heritages and 333 provincial intangible cultural heritages.
The coverage rate of broadcast and TV is improved. By the end of 2011, there are 10 radio stations and 37 medium and short wave radio transmitting stations and rebroadcasting stations. The comprehensive coverage rate of broadcast reaches 96.6%, which is 0.4% higher than that of last year. There are 10 television stations and the comprehensive coverage rate of television is 97.7%, which is 0.4% higher than that of last year. The number of cable TV users amounts to 13.258-mln, increasing by 261,000.
By the end of 2011, Sichuan has 78,066 health organizations (including village clinics) with 333,000 beds, employing 347,000 health workers, among whom there are 124,000 medical practitioners, 28,000 assistant medical practitioners and 118,000 registered nurses. There are 203 maternity and child health institutions with 5,000 medical practitioners and assistant medical practitioner as well as 4,000 registered nurses. There are 4,681 township health clinics with 34,000 medical practitioners and assistant medical practitioners as well as 15,000 registered nurses.
Sanitary environment is further improved. In 2011, the group of provincial hygienic cities added two new members. The tap water coverage and sanitary toilet coverage in rural areas enjoyed a YoY growth of 2.9% and 2.0% respectively. The incidence of category A and B infectious diseases is 247.8 / 100,000.
Rural health care is being optimized. The new type rural cooperative medical service has covered 175 counties (cities and districts), involving a rural population of 62.631-mln and realizing full coverage of agriculture-related counties (cities and districts). The population joining the new type rural cooperative medical service takes up 97.9% of the total rural population, growing by 1.7%. Medical service capability is improved and maternity and child health work is enhanced. Both maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate keep dropping to 37.2 / 100,000 and 11.8‰ respectively. 1,019 fully functional community health service stations are built, providing health care to 96.1% of the population.
In 2011, provincial excellent sports teams won 18 gold medals, 6 silver medals and 5 bronze medals in world-class competitions; 32, 4, and 2 gold, silver, and bronze medals respectively in Asian competitions; and 21, 27, and 46 gold, silver, and bronze medals respectively in national competitions. The sales revenue of sports lottery keeps increasing to 3.33-bln yuan, a YoY growth of 13.9%. 980-mln yuan public welfare fund was raised. There are 15 national high-level talent reserve bases, 18 provincial such bases, 30 city (county) level key training units and 201 national youth sports clubs in Sichuan. A total 4,495 fitness paths can be found in Sichuan with 855 newly-built paths in 2011. 120-mln yuan special fund was put into “ten sports activities beneficial to the people”. 1,163 rural fitness facilities were set up.
GDP and Per Capita GDP
In 2011, the GDP of Sichuan amounts to 2102.67-bln yuan, increasing by 15%. The per capita GDP of Sichuan is 21,633 yuan, growing by 15.9%. The per capita disposable income of urban residents is 17,899 yuan and the rural per capita net income is 6,128.6 yuan, rising by 15.8% and 20.5% respectively.
In 2011, added values of the primary, secondary and tertiary industries are 298.35-bln yuan, 1102.79-bln yuan and 701.53-bln yuan, increasing by 4.5%, 20.7% and 10.9% respectively. The three industries’ contribution rates to economic growth are 4.3%, 70.0% and 25.7% respectively. The per capita GDP of Sichuan is 26,133 yuan, growing by 15.9%. Structure of the three industries is adjusted from 14.4: 50.5: 35.1 to 14.2: 52.4: 33.4.
Agricultural Output Value and Growth Rate
In 2011, sowing area of grain crop in Sichuan increases by 0.6%. Sowing areas of oil plants, medical herbs, and vegetables are 1,232,800-hectare, 98,800-hectare and 1,205,600-hectare, growing by 1.1%, 3.9% and 3.8% respectively. Total grain output enjoys a YoY growth of 2.1%, with autumn grain increasing by 3.2% and spring grain by 1.9%. Among cash crops, the output of oil plants is 2,784,000-ton, growing by 3.7%; cotton output is 15,000-ton, growing by 3.2%; fiber crops output is 61,000-ton, dropping by 4.8%; tobacco leaf output is 249,000-ton, growing by 1.6%; and vegetable output is 35,736,000-ton, growing by 7.4%.
As to animal husbandry, big livestock production is developing well and poultry production remains healthy growth. In 2011, the slaughtering rates of pig, cattle and mutton drop by 2.4%, 1.9% and 3.6% respectively. While the slaughtering rates of poultry and rabbit both increase by 2.7%. Eggs and milk outputs rise by 0.3% and 2.0% respectively.
Forestry enjoys sustainable and speedy development. In 2011, forestation is realized in 283,300-hectare barren mountains and areas. The natural forest protection project covers an area of 78,700-hectare and 21,300-hectare for the returning-farmland-to-forestry project. Effective management and protection is carried out in 18,485,000-hectare forest. By the end of 2011, there are altogether 16 wetland parks in Sichuan, among which 9 are provincial parks (3 newly-built in 2011) and 7 are national parks (3 newly-built in 2011). Forest coverage of Sichuan is 35.1% by the end of 2011, which is 0.28% higher than that of 2010.
Fishery enjoys stable growth. Aquaculture covers an area of 188,000-hectare in 2011, increasing by 2.8%. Aquatic product output is 1,121,000-ton, growing by 6.7%.
Agricultural production conditions continue to be improved. In 2011, there is 68,000-hectare newly-increased effective irrigation area, making the total irrigated area to be 2,605,000-hectare. 2,150 square kilometer soil erosion area is treated. Drinking water problem is solved for a population of 4,394,000. The total power of farm machinery increases by 2,710,000 kilowatt, amounting to 34,261,000 kilowatt, a YoY growth of 8.6%. The rural power consumption in 2011 is 14.86-bln kilowatt-hour, increasing by 4.9%.
Industrial Added Value and Growth Rate
In 2011, Sichuan achieves an industrial added value of 949.1-bln yuan, increasing by 21.6% and realizing a contribution rate of 62.4% to economic growth. There are 855 newly-increased industrial enterprises above designated size, making the total number to be 11,860 by the end of 2011. Added value of industries above designated size grows by 22.3%. Industrial enterprises above designated size realize 3013.87-bln yuan prime operating revenue, 356.07-bln yuan total pre-tax profits and 196.13-bln yuan net profit, increasing by 39.8%, 40.1% and 42.6% respectively. State-owned or state-controlled industrial enterprises realize 47.72-bln yuan net profit, growing by 9%. Joint-stock enterprises realize 139.48-bln yuan net profit, growing by 45.4%; foreign and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan invested enterprises achieve 21.74-bln yuan net profit, growing by 33%. Composite index of industrial economic benefit is 286.8, 42.1 points higher than that of 2010.
In 2011, the local public fiscal revenue of Sichuan is 204.44-bln yuan, increasing by 30.9%. The tax revenue is 153.7-bln yuan, growing by 30.2%. The local public fiscal expenditure is 467.38-bln yuan, growing by 9.8%.
In 2011, Sichuan realizes 783.74-bln yuan retail sales of social consumer goods, a YoY growth of 18.1%. In terms of region, retail sales of urban and rural market are 628.84-bln yuan and 154.9-bln yuan, increasing by 18.2% and 17.6% respectively. In terms of consumption forms, revenue of catering business reaches 117.86-bln yuan, a YoY growth of 19.3%. In particular, revenue of catering enterprises above designated size is 26.01-bln yuan, increasing by 30.6%. 665.88-bln yuan retail sales is achieved, a YoY growth of 17.9%. In particular, retail sales of enterprises above designated size amounts to 284.89-bln yuan, increasing by 32.0%.
In 2011, Sichuan achieves a total import and export value of $ 47.78-bln, a YoY growth of 46.2%. The export value is $ 29.04-bln, growing by 54.2%; while the import value is $ 18.74-bln, growing by 35.3%. The export value of general trade is $ 14.11-bln, increasing by 44.5%. The export value of processing trade is $ 12.32-bln, growing by 1.7 times.
Foreign Capital Utilization
In 2011, Sichuan utilizes $ 11.03-bln foreign capital, a YoY growth of 57.2%. There are 322 newly-approved foreign direct investment enterprises, adding up the total number to be 9,615. Foreign capital in place is $ 9.527-bln, a YoY growth of 55.6%. 173 foreign Fortune 500 enterprises have settled in Sichuan. By the end of 2011, there are 9 foreign consular organs in Sichuan.
Finance, Security and Insurance
By the end of 2011, RMB and foreign currency outstanding of deposits of all financial institutions in Sichuan amounts to 3497.12-bln yuan, growing by 15%, that is, 460.69-bln yuan more than that at the beginning of the year. Outstanding of deposits of units is 1683.26-bln yuan, growing by 11.3%, that is, 182.24-bln yuan increase. RMB and foreign currency loan balance is 2251.42-bln yuan, growing by 16.6%, that is, 319.63-bln yuan increase. Medium and long-term loan balance amounts to 1611.3-bln yuan, growing by 14.5%, that is, 205.93-bln yuan increase. The RMB and foreign currency personal savings outstanding of deposits is 1620.07-bln yuan, increasing by 18.3%.
By the end of 2011, there are 64 insurance companies in Sichuan. In terms of nature of business, there are 29 property insurance companies, 31 life insurance companies, 2 endowment insurance companies and 2 health insurance companies. In terms of source of capital, there are 52 Chinese-funded and 12 foreign-funded companies. The total premium of original insurance in 2011 is 77.87-bln yuan, increasing by 9.2%. Premiums of property and life original insurances are 22.51-bln yuan and 55.36-bln yuan, growing by 17.5% and 6.1% respectively. All sorts of indemnities and payments cover 19.12-bln yuan, rising by 28.1%, among which 10.94-bln yuan is property insurance indemnity, which grows by 27.4%; and 8.17-bln yuan is life insurance indemnity, which grows by 29.0%.
By the end of 2011, Sichuan has 95 domestic and foreign listed companies with 87 being A shares and 10 being H shares (2 companies are listed in both places). In 2011, the financing activities involve a total fund of 33.33-bln yuan, 7.68-bln of which is contributed by 8 companies through IPO and 25.65-bln is by 16 companies through refinancing.
By the end of 2011, Sichuan has 4 security companies, 204 security exchanges, 3 futures companies, 15 futures sales department, 3 securities investment consulting companies, 9 branches of fund companies, and 1 representative organization of foreign security institution.
In 2011, 266 enterprises in 19 industries fulfilled the task to eliminate outdated capacity and 54,971 persons realized re-employment by job transfer. 306 pollution abatement projects were completed, utilizing 165-mln yuan investment. Among them there were 221 industrial pollution abatement projects with 120-mln yuan investment and 85 livestock & poultry farms projects with 45-mln yuan fund. Treatment rates of urban sewage and garbage reached 80% and 89% respectively. Special efforts were spent to treat 32 small river basins. Water source reserves for collective drinking water in 4 cities and 3,472 townships were designated or adjusted according to relevant laws. By the end of 2011, there are 167 natural reserves in Sichuan, covering an area of 90,139 square kilometers, which account for 18.7% of the total land area of Sichuan. There are also 4 national and 17 provincial eco-counties.
In 2011, there were altogether 18,193 casualty accidents of all kinds with 3,634 deaths. The number decreased by 1,904 and 238 persons compared to that of 2010; that is, dropping by 9.5% and 6.2% respectively. The death toll caused by accidents keeps falling in continuous 11 years since 2001.
In 2011, the business revenue of postal and telecom industry amounted to 60.67-bln yuan, a YoY growth of 18.4%. The turnover of postal service was 5.72-bln yuan, increasing by 26.8%. The turnover of telecom business was 54.95-bln yuan, increasing by 17.6%. The capacity of local fixed phone switchboard can support 19,552,000 users and the capacity of switchboard for mobile phones can support 121,925,000 users. By the end of 2011, there are 13,830,000 fixed phone users, 360,000 less than that of 2010. There are 48-mln mobile phone users, increasing by 6.44-mln. The popularizing rate of phones is 68.8% with popularizing rate of fixed phones being 15.4% and mobile phones being 53.4%. There are 6.91-mln fixed Internet users and 33.32-mln mobile Internet users. The total length of optical cables in Sichuan amounts to 696,000 kilometers.
In 2011, the railway turnover volume of freight in Sichuan is 78.69-bln ton-kilometer, a YoY growth of 5.2%. The passenger handling capacity is 29.5-bln person-kilometer, a YoY growth of 12.8%. Up till the end of 2011, the total mileage of railway open to traffic in Sichuan amounts to 3,564 kilometers.
By the end of 2011, the total mileage of highway open to traffic in Sichuan reaches 283,000 kilometers with 3,009-kilometer expressway, 19,700-kilometer national and provincial trunk road, and 258,700-kilomerter rural road. In 2011, Sichuan’s highway serves an accumulative passenger volume of 2.426-bln with a passenger handling capacity of 90.068-bln person-kilometer, growing by 5.0% and 12.3% respectively. 1.398-bln ton freight is transported through highway, realizing a freight handling capacity of 113.907-bln ton-kilometer, growing by 15.5% and 15.6% respectively.
Two large-scale, intensive and modernized port areas in south and north-east Sichuan are now under construction. They are Luzhou-Yibin-Leshan port cluster and Guang’an-Nanchong-Guangyuan port cluster. The annual container handling capacity of inland water ports in Sichuan is 1-mln TEUs. The annual handling capacity of ports both established and under construction amounts to 2.33-mln TEUs. The handling capacity of cargos in 2011 is 70.75-mln tons, a YoY growth of 10.75%. In particular, the handling capacity of containers reaches 108,600 TEUs, a YoY growth of 55.27%. In 2011, water transportation serves 30.83-mln passengers, realizing a passenger handling capacity of 263-mln person-kilometer, growing by 12.82% and 13.81% respectively. The volume of freight transported through water passage is 63.67-mln tons, realizing a freight handling capacity of 9.016-bln ton-kilometer, increasing by 21.59% and 20.04% respectively.
In 2011, Sichuan has 11 civil airports and 1 under construction. 31 routes have been opened with 10 being international routes. Sichuan civil aviation realizes a handling capacity of 33.105-mln passengers in 2011, a YoY growth of 11.7%. The freight and mail handling capacity is 494,000 tons, a YoY growth of 10.2%.