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大卫·韦伯:灾前、灾中、灾后的协作
 2010年09月22日
来源:省政府办公厅
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  Abstract: Prevention and protection from disasters are crucial, but so is high quality intervention.  Rescue services around the world face increasing pressure to carry out their work in the most efficient and effective manner.  With rising public expectation and increased demand, rescuers must ensure they are capable of achieving the highest possible levels of success.

  Sharing skills and best practice with professional colleagues and organisations can help to ensure that rescuers are constantly updating their knowledge, understanding the very best practices and improving their skill levels.  No country or rescuer can claim they have nothing to learn from collaboration and there are organisations and structures that can assist the collaborative approach to development and improvement of skills and techniques.  

  This paper invites increased collaboration before, during and after disasters.

  摘要:防灾具有重要意义,高质的干预也必不可少。救援服务如今面临越来越大的压力,人们总是期望看到最有效率的工作。救援人员必须保证他们有能力取得最大的成功。

  与具备专业知识的同行和机构交流技巧与成功经验,将有助于救援人员不断更新知识,了解最优的工作方案,提高他们的专业技艺。所有国家和救援人员都可以从协作中受益。事实上已有专业的机构来帮助以协作方式共同提高改善技艺。

  本论文论述了灾前、灾中及灾后不断加强的协作。

  SLIDE 1 – Title Slide

  SLIDE 2 – CFO Dave Webb

  Governor Mr Jiang, Distinguished Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen.

  Good afternoon.

  First of all, on behalf of UK Fire and Rescue Services, the United Kingdom Rescue Organisation and also the World Rescue Organisation, I would like to thank Sichuan Provincial People's Government for inviting me to speak and share our experiences.

  SLIDE 3 – UK Map/Leicestershire Slide

  I am the Chief Fire Officer of Leicestershire Fire and Rescue Service that is based in the centre of the United Kingdom.

  SLIDE 4 – Before/During/After diagram

  The main theme of my presentation is one of international collaboration before; during; and after disaster events occur. 

  My experience from working with many  Fire and Rescue Services around the world is that rescue organisations can very usefully share best practices in collaboration and training before events occur; provide support to affected countries and regions during the rescue phase of an event; and subsequently, assist with recovery and added value from lessons learnt following disaster events.

  The UK Fire and Rescue Service has a long history of Fire fighter exchange and collaborative training in all aspects of rescue work and of particular importance today are the areas of Urban Search and Rescue and Emergency Medical work in disaster zones.  In addition, we are world leaders in developing skills and techniques in the field of Road Traffic Collisions and we have unique avenues to explore training and development in these areas through the United Kingdom Rescue Organisation (UKRO) and the World Rescue Organisation (WRO).  Let me briefly explore each phase of before, during and after event collaboration.

  SLIDE 5 – Before the Event

  SLIDE 6 - Before Event Collaboration

  UK Fire Services are keen to carry out Fire fighter exchange programmes that allow different regions of the world to learn from each other. We have so far enjoyed success in this with many countries and these mutually beneficial programmes enable sharing of best practice in subjects such as disaster event management.

  We would be pleased to work with organisations in China to share experiences of training and facilities for urban search and rescue as well as fire fighting, both within our local fire services and also at our national training facility at Moreton-in-Marsh.  Exchange of ideas and collaboration in planning is, in our experience, the most efficient way of providing effective intervention during a disaster event.

  SLIDE 7 - During the Event

  UK Fire and Rescue Services have deployed urban search and rescue teams to various disaster zones around the world and maintain a constant readiness to deploy to anywhere in the world at very short notice.

  SLIDE 8 – UN/OCHA/INSARAG

  We operate, as does China, within the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG) under the umbrella of the United Nations.  The International Search and Rescue Advisory Group is part of the United Nations Office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs (OCHA) and provides the framework for international cooperation on disaster response.  China, like the UK, has a search and rescue team ready to assist and able to deploy anywhere in the world.  The United Kingdom response is managed as part of the UK government’s overall response.

  Indeed the teams from China and the UK were deployed to work together in the earthquake in Haiti through the INSARAG process.  This mechanism has enabled the quick and effective deployment of teams throughout the world from both the UK and China. It is obvious to me that working alongside teams from China has enabled the UK to share skills and to learn from the great experience China has in dealing with major disasters, particularly earthquakes.

  SLIDE 9 – Indonesian Earthquake 2009

  The UK response provides small self-supporting teams into disaster zones where they work with the local rescuers, if indeed they have them, as well as with rescue teams from other regions of the world.  A key part of the work undertaken through INSARAG is to assist local rescuers in developing their skills so that all work together as co-ordinated teams, and to promote independence.  It is my understanding that a recent project was undertaken in Sichuan province aimed at improving the level 1 response.  (This is the first response normally undertaken by volunteers and local agencies).  This piloted a new course using local rescuers in China following the recent devastating earthquake. The local Police, volunteers and China urban search and rescue were all involved.

  

  SLIDE 10 – Pakistan Earthquake 2005

  Of course in keeping with many other national rescue teams the UK teams not only deploy highly trained rescue workers but also have the facility of fully trained search and rescue dog teams.

  SLIDE 11 - After the Event

  SLIDE 12 – Haiti Earthquake 2010

  We have also recently brought on line specially trained teams that work with the medical organisations in disaster zones and who are skilled in working to provide medical assistance for trauma as well as minor medical concerns such as dehydration and sickness.  This is particularly important in the post disaster recovery phase of disasters such as earthquakes.  These are not large medical teams able to deal with major trauma but teams skilled in treating less serious ailments which are vital to the recovery phase of a disaster.

  SLIDE 13 –UKRO and WRO logos

  In addition to all of these areas, I am also pleased to briefly present to you the work of the United Kingdom Rescue Organisation (UKRO) and the World Rescue Organisation (WRO). 

  SLIDE 14 – (Slide build x 5) UKRO USAR, RTA, Rope Rescue, Trauma

  These are organisations that provide a unique way of improving the skills and techniques of rescue workers to manage a variety of rescue work including urban search and rescue, road traffic collisions, high level rope rescues and also medical trauma.

  This is all delivered by the use of annual competitions at which the rescuers test the skills and techniques of teams in the areas I have detailed.  The training and development that occurs prior to the competitions is an excellent platform for the improvement of skills, and the learning that occurs at the competitions is a unique source of development not provided in any other forum.

  SLIDE 15 – UKRO/WRO Annual Challenges/Photos of Events (Slide build x 3)

  We hold these events annually around the United Kingdom and teams of rescue workers compete against each other to show that they have the greatest level of skill in each of the disciplines. We have developed these competitions over many years and through the World Rescue Organisation SLIDE 16 – WRO

  have now extended them to different regions of the world to ensure that they can also benefit from improved skills and techniques of their rescue workers.

  It is my belief that this methodology would also provide an excellent development platform for rescue workers in China.

  You may think that it unusual to develop skills and techniques in urban search and rescue through a competition but I can assure you it does encourage real improvement and best practice. 

  SLIDE 17 – RTAs in China

  Moving on to other matters, according to the China Automotive Technology Research Centre China has significantly reduced the number of road traffic accidents following the introduction of a regime to cut down on drink driving and harsher punishment for overloading.  Official statistics show that the number of road traffic accidents have been reduced by 50% to 670,000 in 2009 and the death toll from 94,000 to 67,000.

  However the death toll is still generally 10 times higher than that in developed nations.

  SLIDE 18 – 200 killed a day

  These are unfortunate statistics that place China in an unenviable position for road traffic collision related deaths and in my opinion this makes Road Traffic Collisions in China a major disaster happening each and every day.  As I stated earlier China is highly experienced in large scale disaster relief and control, whereas the UKRO, WRO and Leicestershire Fire and Rescue Service have wide expertise in road safety management and post-accident rescue. It would be excellent if we could learn from each other's strengths to mutually enhance our capabilities.

  SLIDE 19 – World Health Organisation

  The slide on show is designed to demonstrate the United Nations (UN) emerging emphasis on intervention as an effective tool for reducing road death and injury.  This is a profound move away from traditionally accepted strategies for reducing casualty figures and is recognition of the capabilities of effective intervention.   Along with other international professionals in this field the WRO and UKRO have helped raise awareness of such a capability.  In setting global targets to tackle the earth’s road-safety crisis, the United Nations recently proclaimed a decade of action for road safety and the resolution proposes action in five areas of concern, summed up as the “five pillars,”

  SLIDE 20-  (Slide Build x 7) World Health Organisation

  

  Pillar 1 – Road Safety Management

  Pillar 2 – Safer Roads and Safer Road Transportation Systems

  Pillar 3 – Safer Vehicles

  Pillar 4 – Safer Road Users

  Pillar 5 – Improved Post-Crash Care

  Increased responsiveness to emergency situations and the provision of appropriate treatment for injuries.

  It is in the Pillar 5 area where the Rescue Services through organisations such as the UKRO and the WRO can collaborate to ensure that best practices from around the world are brought together thus ensuring that victims of road traffic collisions have the highest possible chance of survival.  This should all be underpinned by good international cooperation.

  SLIDE 21 – GRSP/IFRC

  The UKRO and the WRO, work with the Global Road Safety Partnership (GRSP) to try and improve the desperately high toll that Road Traffic collisions have within societies.  The GRSP brings together governments and governmental agencies, the private sector and civil society organisations to address road safety issues particularly in low and middle income countries.  GRSP is a hosted programme of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, based in Geneva.  Traditionally, road safety has been seen as an unfortunate consequence of a transport system and as a problem for the transport sector. However, the direct costs of the growing number of crashes falls mostly on the health sector, businesses and families. Today it is widely acknowledged that many sectors have a role to play in road safety, especially in the prevention of crashes, deaths and injuries. GRSP brings together these sectors at the global, national and sometimes local government level. GRSP provides advice on good practice and facilitates projects in a growing number of countries and in China has strong links for delivery with the Red Cross Society of China.  I would suggest that this is a key are where we can assist China in the same way China can assist us in gaining a greater understanding of recovery after major disasters.  Mutual learning will certainly provide lessons in general rescue and command and control that will be beneficial for both road traffic collisions and major disaster rescues such as earthquakes.

  SLIDE 22 – (Slide Build x 6) WRO Development Work

  The WRO has carried out projects as far afield as Sakhalin in Russia, Ghana in Africa, Poland, Spain and the Republic of Ireland.  We are a not for profit organisation and one that works only to assist rescue organisations around the world.  The WRO has followed the lead of the UKRO in improving the skills of rescue worker, to make disaster events, including road traffic collisions and search and rescue situations more survivable, by using the challenge concept as the key learning and development platform.

  The WRO can assist in many ways including working with rescue workers around the world on specific projects designed to improve their abilities and skills by delivering programmes designed specifically for them.  Again I must stress that we are a not for profit organisation and seek only to cover our own costs.

  We can also work with countries to help them develop a challenge or competition base that will provide an excellent springboard for the improvement of skills and techniques in all disciplines, including urban search and rescue, rope rescues and road traffic collision skills.

  SLIDE 23 – WRO Challenges

  Over the past ten years we have delivered challenges in Australia, Scotland, South Africa, The Czech Republic, Canada, England, New Zealand, Spain, Wales, Germany and Ireland.  I truly believe that this is a key piece of collaboration that we can engage in with you to try and improve the skills of rescue specialists in China.   There is no country or rescuer in the world that can claim they have nothing to learn from collaboration, and the World Rescue Organisation is proud of its record of assisting so many countries to improve the survivability of disasters big or small.

  SLIDE 24 – UN/GRSP/WRO/GRSF

  China's representative to the 58th UN Global Road Safety Crisis Forum proposed that the international community should work closely with countries such as China to address the massive change relating to the road safety issues and the official report from the GRSP field worker in China is clear that assistance in developing the emergency services would be of great benefit in reducing the burden of road traffic accident related deaths.  Collaboration is vital to improvement and we would be delighted to work with you.

  Ladies and Gentlemen, the theme of my presentation is collaboration and mutual assistance.  I have been honoured to have been provided the opportunity to speak to you today, I wish you success with your aims and I sincerely hope that we can work together in the future.

  SLIDE 25 – Title Slide

  

 
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