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威利逊:灾后恢复重建中的政府和民间角色分工——中国和其他国家的经验
 2010年09月22日
来源:省政府办公厅
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  The lessons learned compiled here are culled mostly from experiences of developing countries in relief and recovery from the earthquakes and their aftermath. 

  这里的教训是宰杀编制从救灾和地震及其后的复苏主要是发展中国家的经验。

  Role of the State-Society in recovery and reconstruction China’s Experience

  中国的恢复和重建中的经验:政府与民间角色的分工

  In state side, strong central government ensured stability and security; enactment of law stated that the post-earthquake reconstruction should adhere to people-centered approach, scientific planning, balanced and step-by-step implementation. As a large nation with a rapidly growing economy, it can divert money from more prosperous areas to aid one devastated region. China has also quickly mobilized donors。 Concurrently, it strengthened coordination, conducted rapid assessment and initiated early recovery frameworks. Priority was given to harvest and marketing of agricultural products in affected areas to minimize disaster losses and at the same time meet the requirements of feeding a multitude of survivors. Reconstruction and mainstreaming disaster risk reduction and learning events also strongly supported the recovery and reconstruction.

  在国家方面,强大的政府确保了受灾地区的稳定。及时制定的《汶川地震灾后恢复重建条例》确保了在重建过程中坚持以人为本的原则,科学规划,循序渐进地分步实施。作为一个经济迅速发展的大国,政府可以从经济较发达地区转移资金,以帮助受灾地区。中国也可以迅速动员社会捐助。同时,政府加强协调,进行快速评估,并采取早期恢复框架。优先考虑受灾地区农产品的收获和销售,尽量减少灾害损失,同时满足受灾地区人民的吃饭问题。重建和普及灾害风险及其他学习活动也大力支持了恢复和重建。  

  In society in general side, the spirit of self help was reflected in the recovery effort. The affected region was agricultural, and farmers were able to get back to work fairly soon after the disaster. The massive rebuilding effort also provided direct investment and job opportunities. China focused on what was left, not on what was gone, not dwelt too much on the past mistakes, but instead concentrated on building the future. Participation of the local governments and the civil society (various sector and media) in the overall rebuilding efforts is noteworthy.

  在民间社会层面,自助的精神体现体现在重建恢复的各个层面。受灾地区主要是农村,农民能在灾后很快开始工作。大规模的重建工作也提供了直接的投资和就业机会。中国人考虑的是什么留下了,而不是什么失去了,这帮助他们可以集中力量建设未来。当地政府和民间社会(不同的组织和媒体)在整体重建中的力量是显著的。  

  Lessons based on 30 years of Learning from Earthquake Response

  过去三十年的地震响应经验

  Based on the lessons from previous 30 years, some key elements on response to earthquake are: recovery is the overriding challenge, set realistic time-frames for recovery, avoid compromising recovery, don’t prolong the relief phase, advocacy and engagement are vital tools for response, recovery is not neutral, etc.   

  根据以往30年的经验教训,地震响应的关键因素有:早期恢复是首要的挑战,设立可实际操作的恢复时间表,避免折衷的恢复方案,不延长紧急救助而应及时转入早期恢复阶段,宣传和引导起着至关重要的作用,早期恢复政策和支持不应一刀切而应对弱势群体有所倾斜等。

 
相关链接  >>
 
·泰迪波恩:2004年12月26日海啸亚齐地区灾后重建工作不足之总结
·田谷聪:灾后重建以及急救运送——关于减灾的机能及平时的应用
·伯特·格莱夫斯坦:自然与人类危机:政府的作用
·洪毅:加快构建中国特色巨灾应急管理体系
·短短两年建成新家园 中国奇迹让世界震撼
 
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