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泰迪波恩:2004年12月26日海啸亚齐地区灾后重建工作不足之总结
 2010年09月22日
来源:省政府办公厅
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  LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE RECONSTRUCTION OF HOUSES IN ACEH POST THE DEC 26, 2004 TSUNAMI CATASTROPHE

  Teddy Boen

  Abstract: Right after the December 26, 2004 earthquake and tsunami, all parties in the world (NGOs, Government and other organizations) share a common interest in reducing future loss of life, injury and property damage. They responded with unprecedented generosity in solidarity with the rescue and relief efforts of the affected communities, local and national authorities. The Indonesian government established BRR (Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Agency) in 2005 with a four year mandate to coordinate and implement reconstruction and rehabilitation in Aceh and Nias.

  Six years have passed since the tsunami catastrophe and the impact areas, especially in Aceh, have recovered and BRR has been dismissed. To celebrate the “successful” reconstruction and rehabilitation in Aceh, at the end of BRR’s mission, BRR organized a gathering in Jakarta which is attended by parties involved in reconstruction and rehabilitation process in Aceh. However, behind all “successful” achievements that were claimed by BRR and NGOs, there are some significant shortcomings regarding the reconstruction process in Aceh.

  In Aceh, there was limited awareness of the need for assessment and lack of expertise to specify what people needs. Most of “experts” that were involved in reconstruction process lack the technical capacity and a clear understanding of the local building culture and the social order of the community as well as the ability to adapt disaster resistant techniques to local styles and situations. Many designs were developed without engineering input. Standard good practice was not shown on construction drawings, and specifications did not adequately cover material quality, testing and workmanship. The facilitators and consultants hired were civil engineers, architects with no specific seismic experience and were unaware of the importance of ductile detailing. The main target of BRR and also many NGOs was “numbers”; the opportunity to “build back better”, reducing vulnerability to earthquakes, was overlooked. All of those shortcomings in poorly built construction and not earthquake resistant. The Simeulue earthquake of February 2008 has become evidence where newly built houses were severely damaged or collapsed.

  The planning of site engineering design and infrastructure did not run parallel with the reconstruction of houses. Vital infrastructure, such as drainage, access roads and foot paths, sanitary facilities, water supply and utilities were seldom in place when the houses were first occupied and resulted that many houses remained unoccupied.

  With this paper, the author tries to summarize those shortcomings so that it can serve as lessons learned to other reconstruction projects all around the world.

  2004年12月26日海啸亚齐地区灾后重建工作不足之总结

  泰迪 波恩

  2004年12月26日地震海啸灾难发生后,全世界所有机构(非政府组织、政府及其他组织)都关注于减少未来人员伤亡和财产损失。大家空前团结起来,在灾区展开救灾工作。印度尼西亚政府于2005年成立了恢复与重建委员会(BRR),委员会将于未来4年在亚齐和尼亚斯地区实施灾后重建与安置。

  6年时间已然过去,受灾地区,尤其是在亚齐,已从灾难中走出来,BRR也完成历史使命而被遣散。为庆祝亚齐“成功”的重建工作,BRR在雅加达组织了一次聚会,参与亚齐重建工作的各方均应邀前往。然而,在BRR和一些非政府组织所宣扬的“伟大成果”之外,在亚齐的重建中也有一些明显的不足之处。

  在亚齐,缺乏评估意识及明析人们实际需求的专业认知。绝大多数“专家”缺乏技术能力,对当地建筑文化与社会秩序没有充分的认识,未能有效地将灾难防治技术融入当地建筑风格。许多设计都没有工程技术含量。建筑制图不符合标准,建材质量、评估与施工都没有足够明确的规范。建筑顾问都是没有地震专业知识的城市工程师和建筑师,他们都没意识到详致规划的重要性。BRR和许多其他非政府组织要实现的主要目标便是一个个数字。建设更好的家园,增强抗震性却被忽略了。这些不尽人意之处导致糟糕的建筑状况和不良的抗震性。2008年2月西美略岛地震中,新建房都严重受损或倒塌便是最好的例证。

  对施工现场及基础设施的规划并未应用于房屋重建中。关键的基础设施,如排水系统,预留维修通道、步行道、卫生设施、供水设施,在首次入住时都为到位,同时也导致许多房屋长期空置。

  本论文作者致力于总结这些不足之处,以期望为世界其他地区重建工作提供借鉴。

 
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