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藤原雅人:在四川应对巨灾国际研讨会的发言概要
 2010年09月22日
来源:省政府办公厅
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  1995年1月17日上午5时46分突发的以兵库县为中心的“阪神?淡路大地震”夺走了6434条宝贵的生命,导致高速公路、铁路、港口等遭受重大灾害。此次大地震灾害造成的直接经济损失高达10万亿日元。


  地震发生后,兵库县制定了建立以人与自然、人与人、人与社会协调发展的“共生社会”为基本理念的“阪神?淡路大地震复兴计划---兵库不死鸟计划”,在得到国内外多方面的大力支援下,实现了适应成熟社会的“创造性复兴”的目标。


  “阪神?淡路大地震”致使约45万户居民住宅遭受重大灾害,其中,约20万户住宅全部毁坏或全部烧毁。紧急避难者最多时达到31万6千余人,为这些避难者尽快提供住所成为灾后最优先的课题。我们快速建成了48300户过渡安置板房,随后又提供了42000户灾后恢复重建公营住宅,共用了5年时间才确保了所有受灾者从板房中搬出来。这样,保障灾民住房就成为从灾情发生当时的紧急救灾到恢复重建的整个过程中的长期而重大的课题。


  从这样的经验和教训中,兵库县力促中央政府创设鼓励受灾者能够自主再建住宅的制度,2007年实现了政府对每户灾民支援最高300万日元的“住宅再建支援制度”。


  在此基础上,兵库县还独自创设了一项制度“兵库县住宅再建共济制度”,即以年保险金5000日元为基础、对灾民每户支付最高600万日元的住宅再建资金。其结果是促使受灾者主动利用存款、共济制度支付资金以及政府支援资金等,及早开始重建自家住宅。


  我们从震灾中切身感受到了“自助”、“共助”和“公助”的重要性。自主保护自己的生命和财产的“自助”,区域内灾民们共同保护本区域的“共助”,加上行政支援的“公助”形成了三位一体。这样就能采取多种对策措施,加快实现灾后强有力的街区重建目标。


  兵库县从大地震灾害中认识到有责任和义务,跨越时空、跨越国界将我们积累的经验和教训传递出去,同时与同样经历了特大地震灾害并快速恢复重建的四川省进行合作,把救灾重建中的经验和教训变为人类的共有财产,为世界各国的减灾防灾做出应有贡献。

  
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  A Speech Summary of The International Seminar About Catastrophe Management in Sichuan
-------Masato Fujiwara, Vice Disaster Monitoring in Hyogo County


  At 5:46 a.m., January, 17th, 1995, when Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake, Hyogo county as the epicenter, happened, it caused a lose of 6434 precious lives as well as the disastrous damages of expressways, railways, ports and so on. The direct economic losses reached up to 10 trillion yen.


  After the quake, the Restoration Plan Of Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake—“Hyogo Phoenix Plan” was settled. This plan was established on the basic belief of co-existential society , that is, the harmonious development between human and nature, human and human, as well as between human and society. With the energetic support from home and abroad, “Hyogo Phoenix Plan” reached the goal of “ Creative Restoration” which was suitable for the mature society.


  Over 450,000 residential houses suffered significant damage in Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. 200,000 of these houses were completely destroyed or burnt down. The number of emergency victims totaled as many as 316,000. The priority should be given to provide enough houses as soon as possible. A total of 48300 interim placement housings were quickly built up. Since then, 42000 reconstructed pubic housings were offered the victims. It took 5 years to ensure the victims to move out form the interim placement housings. Therefore, to ensure the housing of victim becomes the major and lasting task during the whole course from the emergency rescue when the disaster took place to the restoration of construction.


  Through learning from these experience and lessons, Hyogoken officers urged the central government to establish various institutions which encouraged victims to reconstruct houses on their own. In 2007, Act concerning Support for Reconstructing the Livelihoods of Disaster Victims was established. It was available for each victim to receive the government support as much as 3000,000 Yen.


  Besides, Hyogo county independently set up the “Hyogoken Housing Cooperation Institution”. On the basis of the 5,000 yen annual housing insurance, this institution provided each family with reconstruction fund as much as 6000,000 yen. Consequently, it urged victims to actively make full use of their deposits, housing insurance fund and public assistance fund, and to rebuild their houses as quickly as possible.


  We keenly realized the importance of self-help, mutual-help and public-help. Self-help is to independently protect one’s life and property. Mutual-help means that victims of earth-hit area should commonly safeguard this area. Public-help is the administrative aid. These three “helps” form a trinitarian system. It enables to adopt various measures to accelerate the fulfillment of the goal of community reconstruction.


  Learned from the earthquake, Hyogoken people believe it is obliged to pass on the experience and lessons without the temporal, spatial  and national boundary. They also believe it is responsible to cooperate with Sichuan province who also concurrently suffered the disastrous earthquake and devoted to the post-disaster reconstruction. They will make the experience and lessons of the post-disaster reconstruction become the common treasure of human beings, and contribute to the course of disaster prevention and reduction.

 
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