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Geographic Location and Natural Condition

  Natural Geographical Features

  Sichuan Province in southwest China, is located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, between east longitude 92 ° 21' to 108 ° 12' and between north latitude 26 ° 03 ' to 34 ° 19', 1,075 km from its east to west, and over 900 km from its north to south. It neighbors Chongqing to east, Yunnan, Guizhou to south, Tibet to west, Qinghai, Gansu and Shaanxi provinces to north. Sichuan covers the area of 486,000 square kilometers, ranking fifth in the country, after Xinjiang, Tibet, Inner Mongolia and Qinghai.

  The topography over the whole province differs enormously from east to west with complex and various terrains. The terrain of China’s mainland forms a flight of three steps in terms of altitude. Sichuan lies between the first step, namely Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and the second step, namely the Middle-lower Yangtze Plain. It is high in the west while low in the east, demonstrating a distinct disparity in altitude. Plateaus and mountainous regions can be seen in west Sichuan at altitudes above over 4,000 meters, while basins and hilly areas can be found in the east, at altitudes above 1,000 to 3,000 meters. The whole province can be divided into three major parts: the Sichuan Basin, the Sichuan Northwest Plateau and the Sichuan Southwest Mountains. 

  The Sichuan Basin, covering an area of 165,000 square km, is one of the four largest in the country. This Basin is surrounded by mountainous regions, having the Qinling Mountain in the north, Micangshan, Daba Mountain in the east, the Daloushan Mountain in the south, and Longmenshan, Qionglai Mountains in the northeast. The regional climate is warm and humid, warm in winter and hot in summer, most areas with annual rainfall of 900 to 1200 mm. Sichuan enjoys a subtropical humid monsoon climate and its vegetation is subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest. The pattern of agricultural use is double cropping in a year. The west are of Sichuan Basin is Chuanxi Plain which is the irrigation area of Dujiangyan. The lands in West Sichuan Plain are fertile and with high productivity. The middle of Sichuan Basin is purple hill area, 400 to 800 meters above sea level, whose terrain is slightly tilted to the south. Minjiang River, Tuojiang River, Fujiang River, Jialing River run to south through its north mountains and join Yangtze River. Besides, the east of Sichuan Basin is East Sichuan Parallel Range Gorge Region, including Huaying Mountain, Tongluo Mountain, and Mingyue Mountain. 

  The northwest of Sichuan Province is Northwest Sichuan Plateau, belonging to the southeast corner of Tibetan Plateau, average elevation of 3,000 to 5,000 meters, alpine climate, covered with alpine meadow vegetation. 

  The southwest of Sichuan Province is the north section of Hengduan Mountains with high mountains and stiff valleys. Rivers flow through mountains alternatively. The rivers and mountains are from east to west Minshan Mountain, Minjiang River, Qionglai Mountain, Dadu River, Daxue Mountain, Yalong River, Shualuli Mountain and Jinsha River. The climate and vegetation here are in vertical distribution, mainly including boreal coniferous forests, temperate mixed broadleaf-conifer forests, northern subtropical mixed evergreen and deciduous forests, and middle subtropical mixed evergreen and broadleaf forests. 

  Historical Geographical Features  

  Sichuan Province is short for Chuan or Shu. In Shang Dynasty and Zhou Dynasty, there were 2 kingdoms established in Sichuan area. One was Shu Kingdom, established with the center of ancient Shu people in present West Sichuan area. The other was established with the center of ancient Ba people in present East Sichuan area(including Chongqing). Therefore, Sichuan was called Bashu in ancient times. In 316 BC, Qin Kingdom conquered Shu Kingdom and Ba Kingdom, then established Ba Prefecture and Shu Prefecture which belonged to Yizhou in Han Dynasty, Jiannandao, Shannadong, Xidengdao in Tang Dynasty. But in Song Dynasty, it was established Chuan-Shaan Road, later divided into 4 roads, including Yi Road, Zi Road, Li Road and Kui Road, collectively called Sichuan Road, which was the beginning of Sichuan Province referred to as Sichuan. Yuan Dynasty set up Sichuan Executive Secretariat, short for “Sichuan Province”. Sichuan Administrative Commissioner established in Ming Dynasty also ruled present Zunyi, Guizhou Province, northeast Yunnan Province and northwest Guizhou Province. The dominators in Qing Dynasty established Sichuan Province and underwent considerable adjustments to the boundaries of Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou which basically confirmed Sichuan’s southern boundaries. 

  In the Republic of China era, present West Sichuan area was divided into Xikang Province, while in 1955, Xikang was back to Sichuan Province. In 1997, Sichuan Province was divided into present Chongqing Municipality and present Sichuan Province, indicating the separate governing of Sichuan and Chongqing. Currently, there are 18 cities and 3 ethnic autonomous prefectures under the administration of Sichuan Province. 

  Since ancient times, Sichuan has enjoyed the reputation of “Land of Abundance”. Relying on superior geographical conditions and economy, Sichuan has been one of the areas which undergo economic development in China. Based on archaeological achievements, in paleolithic period, there were human activities in Sichuan. Dating back to 4,000 to 5,000 years, Chengdu Plain was the origin center of upper Yangtze River region culture. Guanghan Sanxingdui and Chengdu Jinsha Site were political, economic and cultural center of Ancient Shu Regime. Agricultural civilization and urban civilization rose early in Sichuan Province. In history, its agriculture, metallurgy, silk, and architecture had undergone certain development. 

  Cultural Geographical Features 

  Sichuan civilization, famous for its significant and unique content and characteristics, is also an important origin of Chinese civilization.

  Sichuan civilization has deep and rich sources. In Xia Dynasty and Shang Dynasty, Sichuan civilization was theocratic civilization. From West Zhou Dynasty to the Warring States period, Sichuan civilization was ritual civilization. After Qin conquered Ba Kingdom and Shu Kingdom, Bashu culture gradually transformed into a critical regional subculture of Qinhan culture. During Han and Wei period, Sichuan was the birthplace of Chinese Taoism. In Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty, Sichuan witnessed blooming literature and the remarkable achievements made in Buddhism. While in Song Dynasty, a period of high degree economic and cultural prosperity, the earliest paper money in the world, “Jiaozi”, was made in Sichuan. Technologies in Bashu area were also quite advanced in history, including Dujiangyan Irrigation Project, planting projects, salt mining technology, bronze smelting technology, astrology, mathematics, medicine and so on.

  Sichuan civilization has distinctive local features. Sichuan mainly belongs to Bashu culture area with its own cultural system. Sichuan language culture, opera culture, tea culture, wine culture, food culture, brocade culture, salt culture and so on all enjoyed distinctive local style, such as Sichuan dialect, Sichuan operas, Sichuan tea, Sichuan wine, Sichuan cuisines, Sichuan medicine, and cultural brands such as Shu embroidery, Shu brocade, and Shu bonsai.

  Sichuan also assembles a large number of cultural treasures. Sichuan’s long history and rich cultural heritage have left many precious high taste cultures. There are 5 world heritage sites, 62 national key cultural relic protection units, and 7 Chinese historical and cultural cities in Sichuan. Besides, there are 24 provincial level historical and cultural cities, 22 provincial level historical and cultural towns and over 200 cultural attractions. Mountain Emei-Leshan Giant Buddha is world natural and cultural heritage cite. Dujiangyan-Qingcheng Mountain is world cultural heritage. A large number of vessels made of gold, bronze, jade, and pottery unearthed from Guanghan Sanxingdui and Chengdu Jinsha Site are all considered as antiques. Among them, Sun Bird, unearthed from Jinsha Site, signifying tea pursuit of light and brightness, forging ahead in unity, harmony and the spirit of inclusiveness, is approved by State Administration of Cultural Heritage as “Chinese Cultural Heritage Logo”.

  Sichuan cuisine is among China’s 3 cuisines. Sichuan wines, such as Wulingye, are considered as treasures on national banquets. Zhuyeqing, Mengding Tea Emei, Maofeng, and so on also enjoy national reputation.

  Sichuan culture is compatible with many other diversified cultures. Although unavoidably Sichuan culture has the closeness and static features of agricultural civilization, it also has clear openness. Besides Bashu culture and Tibetan culture in West Sichuan area, Sichuan culture, outside Sichuan Basin, also connects with Shu culture, Qinlong culture, Yelang culture, Zangyi culture, contributes to exchanges with and influence on surrounding economies and cultures, and forms the distinctive diversity and openness of Bashu culture. Since opening up, Sichuan culture also absorbs western holiday culture and food culture.

  Urban Geographical Features 

  Sichuan Province has accelerated its progress of urbanization, but the rate is still lower than national level. Since 1970s, Sichuan’s urbanization has entered into accelerating development stage. By the end of 2012, there are 32 cities in total in Sichuan, including 1 sub-provincial city, 17 prefecture cities, and 14 county level cities. The newly-born population in 2012 reached to 797,300 with the birth rate of 9.89‰ and the natural population growth rate of 2.97‰. Yearly resident population amounted to 80.762 million, increasing 262,000 than that of previous year. Among them, the urban population was 35.156 million, while the urban population was 45.606 million. Population urbanization rate reached 43.53%, up 1.7 percentage points than that of 2011. 

  The scale of cities and towns grows larger. Despite that central cities further develop and expand rapidly, such as Chengdu, Zigong, Panzhihua, Mianyang, Deyang, etc., other cities whose urbanization rate surpasses 30% include Luzhou, Nanchong, Meishan, Yibin, Suining, Leshan, Neijing, Dazhou, Ya’an, Ziyang, and so on. All these cities improve greatly Sichuan’s urbanization. A new 4 tier city system has formed, that is, Chengdu served as megacity, Mianyang, Panzhihua, Deyang, Zigong as large cities, Guangyuan, Suining, Dazhou and so on as medium-sized cities, and Guanghan, Jiangyou, Langzhong as small cities. 

  Although the level of urbanization has been improved, urban scale system is imperfect. Among 32 cities, there is 1 city with the population of over 2 million. The rest are mostly small and medium sized cities. Cities with the population of 1 million to 2 million, 0.5 million to 1 million are inadequate, forming an obvious fault effect. Moreover, urban spatial distribution is not so reasonable. The city layout is that cities are concentrated in East Sichuan, accounting for 93.75%, while only sparsely distributed in West Sichuan. East Sichuan and Chongqing together form the densest urban agglomeration in Western China area, next only to Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Tanggu, ranking 4th. In 2010, it was approved as Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone. But in West Sichuan area, there are only 2 cities, namely Panzhihua and Xichang.  

  Central city has prominent position. Chengdu is the capital of Sichuan, also one of 15 sub-provincial cities in China. Chengdu is the largest economy, culture, technology and education centers, transport and communications hub. Sichuan’s population, industries, capital, technology, information and talents are all highly concentrated to Chengdu. Chengdu’s land area only accounts for 2.6% of Sichuan, while the permanent resident population and GDP is 17.56% and 34.13% respectively. Chengdu is of vital position in Sichuan and also an important central city in western China. 

  Local cities enjoy distinguished features. Apart from Chengdu, a comprehensive mega-city, other cities also have distinctive features in city functions. Mianyang is famous for Western China technology city. Xichang is scientific satellite city. Panzhihua is known as steel city. Zigong is famous for salt. Nanchong is silk center. Deyang is a crucial city for manufacturing. Yibin and Luzhou are not only wine cities, but also hubs for land and water transport. Leshan, Mount Emei, Dujiangyan, Langzhong are all famous tourism cities. 

  Land Resources 

  In 2012, Sichuan covered a land area of 486,000 square kilometers, accounting for 5.1% of entire territory, and ranking 5th in China. Owning to large population, Sichuan’s average land area per capita is lower than national average level. The sharp contradiction between land and population is quite severe.

  Sichuan’s topography is complex and varied, including mountains, hills, plains, and plateaus, accounting for 77.1%, 12.9%, 5.3%, and 4.7% respectively of Sichuan’s total area. Sichuan has rich soil types, including 25 soil types, 66 subtypes, 137 soil geniuses, 380 soil species. Soil types and subtypes are 43.48% and 32.60% of the national total respectively.

  Sichuan’s land use types are divided into 8 primary use types (Table 1), 45 secondary use types and 62 tertiary use types. Except rubber plantation, primary and secondary use types owned by other provinces could also be found in Sichuan, quite representative in China. The main land use types are forestry and husbandry. Forest and animal feeding lands mainly distribute mountains around Sichuan Basin and West mountains and plateau, accounting for 68.9% of Sichuan’s total land area. Arable lands mainly lie in East Sichuan Basin and hilly area, accounting for over 85% of the total arable lands in Sichuan. Garden plots mainly distribute in hilly area of Sichuan Basin and Southwest mountains, accounting for 70% of the total garden plot in Sichuan. Lands for traffic and construction are mainly in plain and hilly area with more developed economy.


 

  Climate Resources 

  Sichuan Basin lies in humid sub-tropical climate zone. Within this are, there is good heat condition. Therefore, Sichuan is warm and humid all the year along with annual temperate of 16 to 18℃ and accumulated temperature of 4000 to 6000℃. Besides, daily temperature range is small while annual temperature range is large. Sichuan is warm in winter and hot in summer with frost-free period of 230 to 340 days. There are heavy clouds above Sichuan Basin with fewer sunny days and short year-round sunshine duration of 1,000 to 1,400 hours, 600 to 800 hours fewer than areas of the same latitude in downstream Yangtze River area. Besides, Sichuan has abundant rainfall with annual average rainfall of 1,000 to 1,200 mm, 50% of which is concentrated in the summer and at night.

  Southwest Sichuan mountain area is in subtropical semi-humid zone in which moderately high temperature occur all the year round with the annual average temperature of 12 to 20℃. Besides, daily temperature range is large while annual temperature range is small. The mornings here are a little cold while it is quite warm at noon. There is no distinctive season. Due to fewer clouds and a large number of sunny days, the year-round sunshine duration amounts to 2,000 to 2,600 hours. But there is comparatively less annual rainfall, 900 to 1,200 mm, and distinctive wet and dry seasons with the duration of dry season of 7 months. 90% of the rainfall is concentrated from May to October. The valley area forms typical dry-warm valley climate under the influence of foehn. Mountain area forms remarkable vertical climate.

  Northwest Sichuan mountain area is in plateau alpine climate zone. Elevation difference is quite large, leading to significant changes in vertical climate. From valley to ridgeway, there is respectively subtropical climate, warm temperate climate, temperate climate, cold temperate climate, subpolar climate, frigid climate and permafrost climate. Overall, the dominate climate is cold temperate with a cold winter and collection summer. Valleys here are dry and warm while the mountains are humid and cold, lacking of hydrothermal. The annual average temperature here is 4 to 12℃ and annual average rainfall of 500 to 900 mm. But the weather here is fine with abundant sunshine. The year-round sunshine duration amounts to 1,600 to 2,600 hours.

  The general characteristics of Sichuan's climate are obvious monsoon climate, rainy and hot summer with distinctive differences in regions. In East Sichuan area, there is a warm winter, an early spring, a heated summer, and rainy autumn, heavy clouds, a lack of sunshine, and a long growing season. However, in West Sichuan area, generally it is cold with a long winter, a rather short summer, abundant sunshine, concentrated rainfall, a distinctive dry and wet seasons. Another feature of Sichuan's climate is that the vertical changes are remarkable with various kinds of climates. Besides, there are also many types of weather disasters with frequent occurrence and wide range, mainly including drought, intense falls, floods, and rather low temperature.

  Water Resources 

  Sichuan has abundant water resources, ranking in the top in China. The average annual precipitation is about 488.975 billion cubic meters. The richest water resources of Sichuan are rivers and streams. Sichuan is well-known as “a province with a thousand rivers”, because there are nearly 1,400 rivers and streams of all length. The total volume of Sichuan’s water resources approximates 348.97 billion cubic meters. The runoff volume of natural rivers amounts to 254.75 billion cubic meters, accounting for 73% of the total water resources. The volume of upper streams reaches 94.22 billion cubic meters, accounting for 27%. In addition, there are 54.69 billion cubic meters of underground water resources, with the exploitable amount of 11.5 billion cubic meters. Sichuan is covered with over 1,000 lakes and more than 200 glaciers. There are also swamps of a considerable area, most of which spread in Northwest and Southwest Sichuan. The total water storage capacity of lakes is about 1.5 billion cubic meters. Besides, the total storage of lakes and swamps amounts to about 3.5 billion cubic meters.

  The main characteristics of Sichuan's water resources are abundant in total, mainly in rivers and streams, winding rivers beneficial to agricultural irrigation, and high quality of natural water. Sichuan's water resources per capita are higher than that of the nation. But water resources distribute unevenly, resulting in regional and seasonal water shortage. The runoff of rivers and streams mainly concentrates from annual June to October. Therefore, some areas still suffer from floods and droughts sometimes. Although the overall quality of natural water is high, it is polluted in some areas. 

  Biological Resources

  Sichuan is endowed with diversified biological resources. A great number of rare and ancient plant and animal species can be found in Sichuan, making it one of the precious biological gene pools in China and even in the world.

  Sichuan has extraordinarily various vegetation types and abundant plant species. There are 10,000 species of higher plants, accounting for about 1/3 of the national total, next only to Yunnan Province. Of all the higher plants, there are over 500 species of bryophytes, over 1620 genera of over 230 families of vascular plants, 708 species of pteridophytes, more than 100 species of gymnosperms (variations included), over 8,500 species of angiosperms, and 87 species of pines, firs and cypresses, all ranking first in China. Sichuan has 84 rare and endangered plant species, taking up 21.6% of the national total. There are over 5,500 species of wild economic plants, 4,600 among which are medicinal plants. The amount of Chinese herbal medicine produced throughout Sichuan accounts for 1/3 of China’s total output, making Sichuan the largest base of Chinese herbal medicine. Sichuan is also the biggest production place for aromatic oil with more than 300 species of aromatic plants. There are more than 100 species of wild fruit plants in Sichuan, among which kiwi fruit has the largest output and ranks first in China and enjoys considerable global reputation. Fungi resources are abundant as well. There are 1,291 species of wild fungi, accounting for 95% of the national total. The forest coverage rate of Sichuan reaches 35.3%.

  Sichuan is rich in animal resources as well. 1,246 species of vertebrates can be found in Sichuan, accounting for more than 45% of the national total. The species number of mammals and birds takes up 53% of the national total. There are 217 species of mammals, 625 species of birds, 84 species of reptiles, 90 species of amphibians and 230 species of fishes. Sichuan has 144 species of national key protected wild animals, taking up 39.6% of the national total and ranking first in China. There are 1,206 wild giant pandas in Sichuan, accounting for 76% of the national total. The population size of giant pandas in Sichuan tops in China. More than 50% of the animal species in Sichuan have economic usage. Sichuan has extraordinarily rich pheasant resources with as many as 20 species in the family of phasianidae, taking up 40% of the national total. A number of them are rare and endangered species, such as pheasant partridge (national first-class protected animal), Sichuan hill partridge, Lophophorus lhuysii, and so on.

  Energy Resources 

  There are abundant resources in Sichuan, mainly including hydro energy, coal and natural gas, accounting for 75%, 23.5% and 1.5% respectively.

  Sichuan's theoretical reserves of water resources reach 143 million kilowatts, taking up 21.2% of the national total, next only to Tibet. Among them, there are 103 million kilowatts of technical available hydro energy reserves and 76.112 million kilometers of economical available hydro energy reserves, accounting for 27.2% and 31.9% of the national total respectively. Both of them rank first in China, making Sichuan the largest hydropower development and base for west-east power transmission project. Water resources mainly distribute in 3 major river systems in Southwest Sichuan mountain area, namely Dadu River, Jinsha River and Yalong River, approximately accounting for 2/3 of the total reserves of water resources in Sichuan. This region is also famous as the largest hydropower deposit in China. Technical available hydro energy reserves take up 79.2% of theoretical reserves of water resources. Besides, technical available hydro energy reserves also account for 80% of the provincial total. The total installed capacity of Ertan Hydropower Station on Yalong River is 3.3 million kilowatts. 

  The retaining coal resources in Sichuan reach 12.27 billion tons, mainly distributed in South Sichuan. There are relatively complete coal varieties in Sichuan, including anthracite, meagre coal, lean coal, bituminous coal, lignite, and peat. Oil and gas resources are based on natural gas. Sichuan Basin is rich in natural gas resources. As one of the principle basins with natural gas and oil, Sichuan Basin has been discovered over 7 trillion cubic meters of natural gas reserves, taking up 19% of the national total. 

  Mineral Resources

  Sichuan's complex geological structure leads to abundant mineral resources and relatively complete mineral species. There have been 100 varieties of minerals and 1,906 mining areas have been verified. Reserves of 43 minerals rank top 5 in China. Reserves of important mineral resources minerals, such as coal, iron,manganese, titanium, vanadium, cooper, lead, light rare earth, phosphate, limestone for cement, and so on have been increased. Sichuan’s strong supply ability of mineral resources makes Sichuan a major province of raw mineral material production and processing in western China and even in the whole nation.

  Sichuan’s mineral resources have enjoyed the following characteristics. Firstly, Sichuan is abundant in resources reserves, but per capita is lower than average national figure. Although there are relatively complete types of minerals, the reserves of many of these minerals are insufficient. Currently, except that vanadium-titanium magnetite, rock salt, sodium sulfate, lead, zinc, sulfur, iron mine, asbestos, mica, gold, phosphate, limestone for cement, and so on could meet the need of exploitation and development, mostly minerals have the problems of insufficient in reserves, poor quality and shortage of verified mining mountains. Secondly, giant or super giant mineral deposits are centralized in distribution and distinctive regional features, which benefits the formation of comprehensive mineral raw maternal bases.

  Minerals are mainly distributed in Southwest Sichuan (Panxi), South Sichuan and Northwest Sichuan with distinctive local features in these three areas. Southwest Sichuan, one of metallurgical bases in China, is rich of ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and rare earth resources, as well as abundant and well combined reserves of other kinds of minerals. South Sichuan area is famous for its mineral types and high reserves in non-metallic minerals, mainly including coal, sulfur, phosphate, rack salt, natural gas, making South Sichuan one of chemical industry bases in China. While Northwest Sichuan is abundant in rare and precious metals(lithium, beryllium, gold, silver) and energy minerals(uranium, peat), serving as potential raw material supplier of cutting-edge technology products. Thirdly, some important minerals are of poor quality or lean ores, lacking of high-grade ores. Fourthly, there are plentiful paragensis and associated deposits with critical comprehensive utilization values. But the paragensis and association of deposits also increase the difficulty of mining and metallurgy. For example, vanadium titanium magnetite in Panxi area is the symbiosis of vanadium, titanium and iron. Coal mines in South Sichuan are the symbiosis of coal and sulfur. Lithium mines in Northwest Sichuan are the symbiosis of lithium and beryllium. 

  Tourism Resources 

  Sichuan is renowned for rich tourism resources with beautiful natural scenery, profound and long history, splendid culture as well as unique ethnic customs. The quantity, quality and taste of Sichuan’s tourism resources rank among the best in China, making Sichuan noted as important tourism province.

  There are 5 world heritage sites in Sichuan, including 3 world natural heritages (Jiuzhaigou Valley, Huanglong and Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries), 1 world natural and cultural heritage (Mount Emei – Leshan Giant Buddha) and 1 world cultural heritage (Mount Qingcheng – Dujiangyan Irrigation System). 4 natural reserves (Jiuzhaigou Valley, Wolong Natural Reserve, Huanglong and Daocheng Yading) are listed into the World Man and Biosphere Reserve Network. Sichuan has 14 national-level key scenic spots, 80 provincial-level scenic spots, and 5 spots winning the title of “China’s 40 Best Tourist Destinations”. By January 2012, there have been a total of 221 A-level tourist attractions and 21 China excellent tourist cities. By the end of 2012, there have been 167 natural reserves with an area of 90,100 square kilometers, occupying 18.6% of Sichuan’s land area. Among these natural reserves, there are 27 national level natural reserves and 19 wetland parks, of which 10 are national level wetland parks. A total of 119 forest parks have been constructed, 32 of which are of national level. Sichuan has complex geological structure and a variety of geological landscapes can be found in Sichuan. Over 220 geological relics have been discovered, among which there are 2 world-class geoparks in Xingwen and Zigong respectively, 16 national level geoparks, making Sichuan take the lead in China in this respect. Sichuan has 8 national level famous historic and cultural cities. Besides, Sichuan is also renowned as a province of cultural relics. Currently, there are 148 museums, 128 national key protected cultural relics units and 1,062 provincial protected cultural relics units, and 3,351 municipal and county protected cultural relics units. There are 120 national level intangible cultural heritages and 460 provincial level intangible cultural heritages. 

(The English version is translated from Sichuan Almanac (2013 Volume) provided by Sichuan Almanac Compiling Association)

 
 
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